Smoking, the Sense of Smell and PARKINSON’S DISEASE

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smoking

 

Smoking, the Sense of Smell and PARKINSON’S DISEASE

Advice to the general population is that smoking is bad for your health…. very bad, indeed.  But there has been information to the contrary for people with PARKINSON’S DISEASE…some 60 studies report that smokers have a lower risk of developing PARKINSON’S DISEASE.  So, then, what are people with PARKINSON’S supposed to believe?

Smoking, for the general population, is known to lead to lung cancer, Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) and ultimately death.  Smoking goes straight through the olfactory system, bypassing any intermediate functions that could serve as a filter, carrying any and all environmental toxins from tobacco or smoke straight to the lungs and the brain.  It is well known that one of the early pre-motor symptoms of PARKINSON’S DISEASE is the loss of sense of smell.  Could smoking possibly be implicated in this?  Could smoking also be an environmental factor implicated in reducing the loss of dopamine producing neurons in the brain?  Can the effects of smoking and early non-motor symptoms help explain the relationship between genetics and environmental factors leading to either neuroprotection or the development and progression of PARKINSON’S DISEASE?

A group of researchers at Pennsylvania State University, Milton S. Hershey Medical Center headed by Xuemei Huang, M.D., Ph.D. developed a study to improve understanding of whether or how smoking affects olfaction in PARKINSON’S DISEASE and how the involvement with olfaction contributes to the development of PD.  They planned their study to. “test the hypothesis that smoking is associated with better olfaction in PARKINSON’S DISEASE.”

Seventy-six people with PARKINSON’S and seventy non- PARKINSON’S control subjects were recruited.  Of the PARKINSON’S subjects, there were 22 with a history of smoking and 54 who had never smoked.  In the control group, 17 were smokers and 53 were non-smokers. The histories of the smoking habits of all subjects were carefully noted.  Only one PARKINSON subject and three of the control subjects were current, active smokers.  While all the smokers had begun smoking in their mid to late teens, by their mid thirties they had stopped smoking.  All subjects were assessed by the mini-mental state examination (MMSE) and the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT).  Non-motor symptoms were also carefully evaluated.

In the PARKINSON’S subject, age of onset was found to be at least 4 years later among the smokers than the nonsmokers.  Control subjects had better results overall for UPSIT smell tests than the PARKINSON’S subjects, however the smoker PARKINSON’S subjects scored better than the nonsmokers.  Smell scores among the PARKINSON’S subjects declined in relationship to age, but decline among the control subjects were not significant.  Women tended to have much better sense of smell than male subjects in the control group, but this was not seen in the PARKINSON’S group.  There was no correlation between the number of cigarettes smoked, the number of years smoked, or the years since the cessation of smoking and the scores of the UPSIT in the PARKINSON’S group, nor was there a correlation between the UPSIT scores and the age of onset or duration of the disease. This study also did not find a relationship between smoking and other non-motor symptoms, such as constipation, etc.

This research has shown some interesting results…that sense of smell in smokers is usually considered to be impaired was not found among the controls, and interestingly, the sense of smell among smokers in the PARKINSON’S group was better than that of the non-smokers.  More interesting, that a history of smoking appears to confer a neuroprotective effect and delays the onset of the disease but that smoking after diagnosis or the use of nicotine patches does not offer the same protection. The results of this study suggest that the protection offered from smoking or nicotine may be a gradual process that occurs over many years before the onset of the motor symptoms.

The authors of this study do show a protective correlation between smoking and the onset of PARKINSON’S DISEASE; however they are aware that there may be other factors, such as personality traits, head trauma, or the use of other medications that may play a role in these results.  Other studies will be needed to verify these results, but this study has made a genuine contribution to understanding the relationship between smoking and PARKINSON’S DISEASE.

Lucasson, E>B>; Sterling, N.W.;Lee, E-Y; Chen, H; Lewis, M.M.; Kong, L; Huang, X.; History of Smoking and Olfaction in Parkinson’s disease.  Early View. Mov. Disord.  doi 10.1002/mds.25912

 

 

Review by Marcia McCall

 

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http://www.vaperliquids.com/blog/

Two New Therapies for PARKINSON’S DISEASE Are Being Tested

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Two New Therapies for PARKINSON’S DISEASE Are Being Tested

 

Inhaled Therapy for PARKINSON’S DISEASE

 

A small pharmaceutical company, Civitas Therapeutics, has announce successful results of a Phase 2b clinical trial for a novel approach to delivery of levodopa that will alleviate “off” time in as little as 10 minutes.  The novel technique is called Arcus inhalation technology and uses a proprietary combination of a powdered form of levodopa and an inhaler.  86 subjects took part in the clinical trial and the company is now negotiating with the Food and Drug Administration to introduce a Phase 3 clinical trial.  The inhalation method that is the basis for the work of this company can speed up the availability of the medication and give patients more control over periods when oral medications take much longer to become effective.  The company is small, only 30 employees at present, but stressed that there is a manufacturing facility near by that will speed the process of bringing the product to patients who need it.

http://www.bizjournals.com/boston/blog/bioflash/2014/04/chelsea-based-civitas-reports-good-results-from.html?

 

ProSavin Tested for Efficacy and Safety

A report in the English medical journal Lancet gave the results of a trial of a lentiviral vector-based gene therapy.  Researchers injected ProSavin bi-laterally directly into the putamens of 15 patients with motor fluctuations and at least a 5-year history of PARKINSON’S DISEASE.  Three cohorts were given different doses, low, medium or high and the patients were followed for a year to assess safety, tolerability and efficacy.  All subjects resumed their normal drug regimen after the surgery. Researchers were looking for the number and severity of adverse reactions, but also at the improvement in motor scores.  There were many adverse reactions, most in the mild to moderate range and usually involved dyskinesias.  There were no serious adverse events.  However, motor response was significantly improved, tested off medication at 6 months and one year.  ProSavin is a lentiviral vector-based gene therapy injected surgically into the striatum and putamen.  The therapy is designed to restore dopamine production in patients with PARKINSON’S DISEASE.

Lancet, 2014 Mar 29; 383(9923): 1138-46. doi: 10.1016/S140-6736(13)61939-X. Epub 2014 Jan 10.

 

 

Review by Marcia McCall

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http://www.viartis.net/parkinsons.disease/news/111202.htm

The Search for Biomarkers in PARKINSON’S DISEASE – Part II

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biomarker 2

 

The Search for Biomarkers in PARKINSON’S DISEASE – Part II

The search for a biological marker (biomarker) for the presence of PARKINSON’S DISEASE has been an ongoing and elusive process.  Because of the variety of symptoms and their presentations and courses in different times in the disease process, finding one specific and unique identifier of any single symptom is exceedingly difficult.  Adding to the difficulty, PARKINSON’S may not be a single disease, marked by a single disease process, but multiple disorders with similar pathologies that have unique differences.  But the ability to diagnose accurately early, even before symptoms appear, would enable interventions to improve the quality of life or even to interrupt the progression of the disease.  It would also lead to better targets for drug development and then be able to test the efficacy of the new drugs to provide effective treatments for specific symptoms.

The newly developed molecular research tools, proteomics, transcriptomics, metabolomics and genomics are making it possible to develop clinically applicable tests for susceptibility to disease and for diagnosing and following the progression of the disease.  These molecular research tools examine biological fluids, such as blood, urine, saliva or cerebral spinal fluid, which for the most part are readily available, easy to obtain and can be processed economically. In the previous article, proteomic research highlighted the study of proteins and peptides and their application to diagnosing and establishing the disease state of the patient with PARKINSON’S DISEASE.  Metabolomics is a research process that examines the metabolites, or chemical fingerprints, of various biological cellular processes.  It can provide immediate information about the physical state of health on a cellular level.  Combined with the information provided by the other “omics” and analyzed with biostatistics and bio information systems, a much more complete picture can be obtained of the state of the organism being observed.

Recent metabolomic studies have looked at the metabolites found in serum in healthy controls and people with PARKINSON’S DISEASE and found subtle distinctions.  Such metabolic distinctions could be the result of dietary or personal metabolism processes, but overall, these studies revealed a statistically significant elevation of a metabolite called N-8-acetylspermidine, which appeared to be more prevalent in subjects with more advanced PARKINSON’S symptoms.

A research lab from the Division of Pulmonary, Allergy and Critical Care Medicine at Emory University in Atlanta, proposed to measure the metabolic signatures of slow versus rapidly progressing motor symptoms in PARKINSON’S DISEASE.  They used serum samples that were collected from subjects within 3 years of diagnosis as well as from healthy controls.  Using dual chromatography-high resolution mass spectromety to analyze the specimens, they found that elevated levels of N8-acetylspermidine were significantly higher in PARKINSON’S subjects that had the more rapidly progressing motor symptoms.  Also, the presence of elevated N8-acetylspermidine was present early in the diagnosis and before the symptoms began to progress.

N8-acetylspermidine is a product that is excreted by cells and is found incases of traumatic brain injury or neuroinflamation and neuronal cell death.  It is also involved in increasing the production of dopamine.  The authors speculate that the increase in N8-acetylspermidine in rapidly progressing form of PARKINSON’S DISEASE, may be an attempt to increase dopamine production in remaining neurons or due to the effects of neuroinflamation.

Because N8-acetylspermidine can be detected early in the course of the disease and before symptoms rapidly escalate, it can serve a biomarker for the progression of the disease, but also may also signal a potential target for a pharmaceutical drug intervention.

Research using the molecular “omics” is still in the early stages, and much more technically complex than this article makes it appear.  Knowledge gained from these technologies is progressing rapidly and other labs will be called upon to duplicate and validate these early studies.  These are exciting times.  Hope for people with PARKINSON’S has never been stronger.

 

James R RoedeKaran UppalYoungja ParkKichun LeeVilinh TranDouglas WalkerFrederick H StrobelShannon L RhodesBeate RitzDean P Jones; Serum metabolomics of slow vs. rapid motor progression Parkinson’s disease: a pilot study.PLoS One 2013 22;8(10):e77629. Epub 2013 Oct 22.

 

 

 

Review by Marcia McCall

 

Picture Credits

http://freethoughtkampala.wordpress.com/2011/01/28/juju-juice-to-go-to-nairobi-for-testing/

The Search for Biomarkers in PARKINSON’S DISEASE – Part I

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biomarker

 

The Search for Biomarkers in PARKINSON’S DISEASE – Part I

PARKINSON’S DISEASE is very complex.  Making an accurate diagnosis depends on the observational skill of the physician doing a neurological exam and the types of symptoms exhibited by the patient. By the time symptoms have appeared, the disease is well established, the symptoms merely a marker of the progression of the disease. .  Physicians and researchers have long sought some type of diagnostic test to define unique biomarkers that can accurately determine the presence or absence of this disease.  The search for a biomarker is complicated by the fact that the motor and non-motor symptoms of PARKINSON’S DISEASE present at different times and affect different regions in the brain and therefore involve different biological processes.  A disease with so many aspects as PARKINSON’S makes finding a unique, specific biomarker a bit like the proverbial search for the needle in a haystack.  And additionally, the ideal test should also be able to measure the progression of the disease or predict development of certain symptoms.

Research has made tremendous progress in analyzing and understanding the biological processes involved in PARKINSON’S DISEASE, but usually, the analyses involve animal models of the disease, not actual humans.  Research on humans can only be accomplished in individual brains after the patient has died.  Some recent research has shown good results for biomarkers in cerebral spinal fluid (CSF), however that requires a lumbar puncture, a potentially painful procedure for a patient that may not have developed symptoms and also expensive to perform.  Finding a reliable test using bodily fluids obtained less invasively, such as by a simple blood sample, has been the goal of some researchers using the newest “omics” research methods (proteomics, metabolomics, transcriptomics, genomics).

Proteomics is a study of proteins, and involves understanding the functions and structures as well as the complexities of the interactions of proteins involved in biological, pathological or pharmacological processes.  Proteins are composed of peptides, strings of basic amino acid building blocks, and it is the combination of peptides that determine the nature of the protein. A collaboration of research institutions based at Washington State University in Seattle had done previous research in identifying proteins and peptides.  A vast array of proteins can be found in human blood, proteins that come from all the organ systems in the human body found specifically in neurological diseases such as PARKINSON’S.  Bringing their prior knowledge to a new proteomic research study, they narrowed the search down to the specific proteins found to be associated with functions of the central nervous system (CNS). These proteins are found in significantly smaller numbers, compared to proteins from other organs.  From those CNS proteins, the research team then compared samples obtained from healthy controls to people previously diagnosed with PARKINSON’S DISEASE, and found the PARKINSON samples to have a distinctly altered profile.

Focusing on glycoproteins that have a previously explored relationship to PARKINSON’S, they then examined the peptides that compose the proteins.  From an initial pool of 50 peptides, they found that 12 of them were consistently found in the plasma of people with PARKINSON’S, and further, that three of them correlated to specific diagnostic differences.  A combination of two specific peptides showed a strong association with the severity of symptoms as diagnosed using the Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS).  A combination of four specific peptides appears to be possible significant markers of PARKINSON’S DISEASE.

The researchers used a laboratory analysis method called selected reaction monitoring (SRM), which has a benefit of being fast, cost effective and is reproducible in different laboratories using different instruments.  It is highly sensitive and can identify and quantify multiple proteins with high accuracy.  They also used a particular technique that does not require the use of expensive antibodies, which again, would increase the efficiency for screening samples in clinical situations.

This research drew from a relatively large pool of subjects, 282, to be precise.  It was successful in using easily obtained blood samples and a sensitive and cost efficient method for screening those samples for proteins and specific peptides.  This research project brings the search for a unique diagnostic test for biomarkers to diagnose PARKINSON’S DISEASE many steps closer to reality.  The results will need to be replicated and validated in many other independent studies and other researchers will add insights and refinement.  This study does show the way to the development of diagnostic tests which can be done economically early and often to assist in diagnosis, follow disease progression and even track the effectiveness of treatments for PARKINSON’S DISEASE.

The principal investigator for this study was Jing Zhang, M.D., Ph.D.  He is the Director and Shaw Professor of Neuropathology at the University of Washington, School of Medicine in Seattle, Washington.  He received research assistance from The Veteran’s Affairs Puget Sound Health Care System, Department of Neurology, Oregon Health and Science University in Portland, OR and also from Department of Neurosciences, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, CA.    A total of 12 research assistants helped with this study.

Pan C, Zhou Y, Dator R, Ginghina C, ZhaoY, Movius J, Peskind, E, Zabetian C.P, Quinn J, Galasko D, Stewart T, Shi M, Zhang J.  Targeted Discovery and Validation of Plasma Biomarkers of Parkinson’s Diseas J. Proteome Res., DOI: 10.1021/pr500421v  pub. date  May 22, 2014

 

Review by Marcia McCall

 

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http://kfmrc.kau.edu.sa/content.aspx?Site_ID=141&lng=AR&cid=46801

Transplanted Dopamine Cells Show Promise for Treating PARKINSON’S DISEASE

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Transplanted Dopamine Cells Show Promise for Treating PARKINSON’S DISEASE

The big news this week was the story in Cell Reports; they transplanted dopamine cells that remained healthy and survived for 14 years. The research team, headed by Ole Isacson, M.D., from McLean Hospital and Harvard University in Boston, MA, found that they also improved the function of dopamine transporters (DAT) and mitochondria.  Dopamine transporters are specialized proteins that carry the neurotransmitter dopamine.  The researchers examined the brains of five subjects, all of whom had received injections of fetal cells when they were already in late stages of PARKINSON’S DISEASE.  These subjects had died from causes other than PARKINSON’S and had given permission for their brains to be examined post mortem.

Fetal cell transplantation into the brains of people with PARKINSON’S DISEASE has a controversial history.  Transplanted cells have previously been shown to follow the same path of deterioration that occurs in the subjects’ own cells.  Transplanted cells also have been shown to develop Lewy bodies, the abnormal small inclusions of alpha-synuclein associated with the dementia sometimes seen in PARKINSON’S DISEASE.  For these reasons, cell transplant therapy for PARKINSON’S DISEASE has been rather controversial.  Additionally, the cells utilized in this currently reported study were derived from aborted fetuses, albeit with maternal approval for their use in research, but still a significant ethical issue in the United States, This study was performed 14 years ago in Canada.  According to Dr. Isacson, only about 25 people have received this particular method of cell transplantation in the last two decades.

In this study, the researchers sought to understand the long-term interactions on the transplanted cells including the aging process.  They specifically examined the dopamine transport (DAT) system and mitochondrial function as a means of neuronal expression. They examined both the transplanted cells and the dopamine producing cells of the patient’s own brain.  The transplanted cells had remained healthy and free of the disease process, while the patient’s own cells showed the marked progression of the disease.  Previous studies by other investigators have not shown the same results.  Dr. Isacson suggests that perhaps it is the method of transplantation that improves the outcome.

Cell replacement therapy for PARKINSON’S DISEASE has the potential to provide better therapeutic treatment by replacing diseased and damaged neurons with healthy and functioning new ones.   But there is as yet much that is not known about either the disease process itself or how transplanted cells can successfully graft into diseased tissue and restore function. Some studies using fetal cells have shown the transplanted cells do provide limited therapeutic benefit, alleviating some of the symptoms, however, the disease continues to progress, the cells were not a cure.  Obtaining sufficient cells from aborted fetuses is also an ethical dilemma. Dopamine producing cells laboratory grown from embryonic stem cells also have a less than perfect record, while some recipients have benefited, others have seen the cells multiply to form tumors.  Other attempts to grow stem cells from fibroblasts found in skin or from bone marrow have shown only limited success.  More basic research is needed to understand both the genetics and biological processes involved for cell replacement.

 

Hallett et al., Long-Term Health of Dopaminergic Neuron Transplants in Parkinson’s Disease Patients, Cell Reports (2014), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2014.05.027 (article in press)

 

Review by Marcia McCall

 

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http://www.businesswire.com/news/home/20140127005173/en/Brain-Surgeon-Teams-Rocket-Scientists-Develop-3D

Exenatide Trial Shows Promise to Help Motor and Cognitive Function in PD

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Exenatide Trial Shows Promise to Help Motor and Cognitive Function in PD

Exenatide is a medication that has been around for quite some time; originally it was used as a treatment for Type 2 diabetes. The method of action of this drug appeared to be neuroprotective, even possibly stimulating the growth of new nerves, which drew the attention of researchers working on PARKINSON’S DISEASE.

Early studies in animal (mouse) models of PARKINSON’S DISEASE showed that exenatide enhanced the effects of levodopa and slowed the development of dyskinesias, the uncontrolled movements that are often caused by levodopa.

Since exenatide had already received Food and Drug Administration as a safe and tolerable medicine, the way to human trials was shorter.  A small trial was conducted by a team lead by Thomas Foltynie, M.D. PhD. at University College of London where he is a Senior Lecturer in the Unit of Functional Neurosurgery.  He has specialized in Parkinson’s research since 2003.   This trial consisted of 44 subjects, 20 who given exenatide to take in addition to their regular Parkinson’s medications and 24 individuals who also had Parkinson’s, but did not receive exenatide and served as controls.  The subjects who received exenatide took 20 micro grams twice a day for 12 months.

At the end of the 12 months, the subjects who had taken exenatide showed significant improvement in both motor and cognitive performance over those who did not using the Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS).  At 14 months, two months after discontinuation of the drug, the subjects were again tested and the exenatide treatment group was still maintaining their improvement.  One year after the end of the treatment time both groups were again re-evaluated and the exenatide treatment group continued to show significant benefit in both motor and cognitive function tests.  The control group continued to show a slow deterioration, as would be expected with PARKINSON’S DISEASE.

Dr. Foltynie commented, “We found that patients on exenatide appeared essentially unchanged throughout and beyond the trial period, while the control group had the expected rate of gradual decline in movement and cognitive ability.”  He believes that the promising results of this small trial need to be repeated in future, larger double blind trials

This project was funded by The Cure Parkinson’s Trust, a United Kingdom foundation founded in 2005 with the goal to raise money to fund PARKINSON’S DISEASE research.  Their funded projects have included research on GDNF, alpha-synuclein and the role of calcium channels in PARKINSON’S, among other prospects for treatment.  Tom Isaacs, the foundation president says, “Although we have to remain cautious on the estimation of these results, we are encouraged by the findings.  This is the first time that I have come across a program that has the potential to make an enduring change in PARKINSON’S patients and we are excited by the potential of this scientific research.”

ciar Aviles-Olmos, MD, PhD; John Dickson, PhD, Zinovia Kefalopoulou, MD, PhD; Atbin Djamshidian, MD, PhD; Joshua Kahan, BSc; Peter Ell, FmedSci; Peter Whitton PhD; Richard Wyse; Tom Isaacs; Andrew Lees, MD, FRCP; Patricia Limousin, MD, PhD; and Thomas Foltynie, MRCP, PhD. Motor and Cognitive Advantages Persist 12 Months After Exenatide Exposure in Parkinson’s DiseaseJournal of Parkinson’s Disease, May 2014 DOI: 10.3233/JPD-140364

Peter Whitton, Ph.D.; Stimulating the brain’s natural defences to stop nerve cell death – research project summary (PDF, 115KB)) – See more at: http://www.parkinsons.org.uk/content/diabetes-drug-potential-parkinsons#sthash.TNfWR3xr.dpuf

 

 

Review by Marcia McCall

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http://ssagy.pixnet.net/blog/post/28116193-糖尿病用藥的第二順位之爭(glp-1-vs-sulfonylurea)

A Phone Call to Diagnose PARKINSON’S DISEASE

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A Phone Call to Diagnose PARKINSON’S DISEASE

Max Little put out a call for 10,000 Parkinson’s volunteers for his project, the Parkinson’s Voice Initiative.  Dr. Little, a British mathematician, started his project while he was a visiting professor at Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Cambridge, MA during 2012. To his delight, 17,000 people responded to his request.  His volunteers were asked to phone in, using a cell phone, and provide him with a scripted sample of their voices. Not all the volunteers were diagnosed with PARKINSON’S, which provided a source of controls.

When people with PARKINSON’S speak, their voice sometimes has certain specific indications, such as breath fluctuations and nuances in the rhythm and flow of their speech.  Dr. Little thought he might be able to analyze these sequences of speech to find indications that would be specific to PARKINSON’S DISEASE.  He has been looking at 300 markers and will use them to create a system to automatically analyze people’s voices for symptoms of PARKINSON’S DISEASE.

The philosophy behind his research project aims to help identify, if not actually diagnose, signs of PARKINSON’S using a simple inexpensive method which could be very useful in areas of the world where there are few neurologists and many people suffering from PARKINSON’S.  With information from the voice analysis, it could be determined whether they needed to go for a neurological check up.

Voice analysis lead Dr. Little to begin exploring movement data, also gathered from cell phones.  This could provide physicians with information about tremor and other motor or movement problems.  Collecting data from a simple phone call would be a way to use crowd sourcing and computer data analysis to make treatment options for people more available and much less expensive.  These are early days in this area of research, but the potential promise is tremendous.

 

Source:

fastcoexist.com/3028715/diagnosing-parkinsons-from-voice-recordings-and-smartphone-movements

 

 

Review by Marcia McCall

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A Sweet Approach to a Treatment for PARKINSON’S DISEASE

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A Sweet Approach to a Treatment for PARKINSON’S DISEASE

A team of Israeli researchers from Tel Aviv University presented their original evidence on their research with the artificial sweetener mannitol at the Drosophila Conference last year and published the results in the Journal of Biological Chemistry.  The results were “sweet”!

Mannitol is an artificial sweetener found in many sugar-free chewing gum and candy productsA Sweet Approach to a Treatment for PARKINSON’S DISEASE.  It is a sugar alcohol derived from many natural plant sources.  Originally, it was seen as a white substance that “bloomed” on flowering ash leaves and was called “manna”, after the biblical food.  It has a long history of use in modern medicine because it is able to cross the blood-brain-barrier, making it useful for treating injuries of the brain.  The Food and Drug Administration have given it their approval.

In laboratory test tube experiments it has also been found to prevent the protein alpha synuclein from forming aggregates, a significant finding which holds an important potential for treatment in PARKINSON’S DISEASE.  To test the ability of mannitol to break up alpha synuclein aggregates in the brain, the researchers, Ehud Gazit and Daniel Segal and their laboratory team designed a study comparing the abilities of both genetically modified and normal drosophila, or fruit flies.  The genetically modified flies to carried the human gene for alpha-synuclein and their performance was barely half of the performance of the normal flies.

So the researchers added mannitol to the diet of the modified flies for a period of 27 days and then repeated the experiment.  Amazingly, the modified flies were able to perform nearly as well as the normal flies.  On examination of the brains of the modified flies, the researchers found a 70 percent reduction in the aggregates of alpha synuclein in the brains of the flies fed a mannitol diet compared to those who had not had the mannitol diet.

Then Dr. Eliezer Masliah from the University of San Diego performed a similar study using mice genetically modified to carry the alpha synuclein gene.  He found that four months after the alpha-synuclein mice were injected with mannitol, they had a dramatic reduction in alpha-synuclein in their brains.

Future and present research involves looking at the structure of the mannitol molecule to find ways to attach other medications that could be carried across the blood-brain-barrier by this molecule.  More experiments with animal models, including behavior testing, will need to be carried out before any testing with humans can be attempted.  Finding the proper dosages and combinations that are effective and safe will take time.  Dr. Segal cautions people that taking mannitol in large quantities is not wise because the research on safety and effectiveness is still being tested and the effects of large doses of mannitol are not yet well understood.  He adds: “I don’t know whether mannitol will provide a cure; this may be too optimistic.  If we can slow down the disease, diagnose it early enough and reduce the amount of suffering, I will be more than happy.  I’m definitely hopeful.”

 

R. Shaltiel-Karyo, M. Frenkel-Pinter, E. Rockenstein, C. Patrick, M. Levy-Sakin, A. Schiller, N. Egoz-Matia, E. Masliah, D. Segal, E. Gazit. A Blood-Brain Barrier (BBB) Disrupter Is Also a Potent  -Synuclein ( -syn) Aggregation Inhibitor: A NOVEL DUAL MECHANISM OF MANNITOL FOR THE TREATMENT OF PARKINSON DISEASE (PD)Journal of Biological Chemistry, 2013; 288 (24): 17579 DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M112.434787

S.Carnvek,  Sweet News for Parkinson’s Disease, Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 04 May 2014

 

 

Review by Marcia McCall

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http://www.visit-alginate.com/mannitol.html

Wristband Aid To Help Manage Parkinson’s

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A MELBOURNE firm is expanding its production of wearable technology designed to help
Parkinson’s disease sufferers live a better quality of life.

The technology, a wristband called the Parkinson’s Kinetigraph, has a built-in accelerometer like the

common one found in smartphones and wearable tech devices such as the Jawbone Up and Fitbit Flex.

The Kinetigraph collects raw movement data which shows the symptoms of Parkinson’s disease.

Clinicians can use the data to finetune medication.

The Melbourne-based Global Kinetics Corporation managing director Andrew Maxwell said the firm

had developed two software algorithms that turned the wristband data into information discernible to

doctors.

Patients typically wore the device for 10 days. It measured the level of “bradykinesia” — the slowness of

movement patients experienced at the onset of symptoms. Bradykinesia typically is treated with

dopamine replacement therapy.

The device also measured “dyskinesia” — more advanced symptoms of Parkinson’s characterised by

involuntary muscle movements.

By finely tuning medication levels, sufferers could have more time in the near-to-normal state at the

beginning of symptoms, and hence an improvement in their quality of life through better movement, Mr

Maxwell said.

Having more precise data from the wristband would see patients receive the appropriate drugs at the right

time.

“We believe that the main focus that clinicians are interested to know about is what’s happening with the

patient’s bradykinesia and dyskinesia and the fluctuations between those two states,” Mr Maxwell said.

“You can most likely use oral therapies for longer without having to move to the more advanced

therapies for Parkinson’s which includes more invasive treatments, such as deep brain stimulation.

“You can also make a decision about how people are progressing with their symptoms and when is the

appropriate time for them to be moving to an advanced therapy,” Mr Maxwell said.

Global Kinetics, a private Australian company incorporated in 2007, has focused on Parkinson’s since its

inception, through the initial research and development phases to commercialisation and production.

The device was first developed at the Melbourne based Florey Institute of Neuroscience and Mental

Health through work undertaken by Professor Malcolm Horne and Dr Robert Griffiths. They co-founded

Global Kinetics Corporation.

The original Kinetigraph bands were launched in 2012, with 500 sold so far. They were sold to hospitals

which provided them to patients for 10 days’ medical surveillance.

The wristbands alert patients as to when to take prescribed medication and patients could time stamp

when they have taken it. Kinetigraphs are used in 50 hospitals in nine countries: Australia, Germany, the

Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Malaysia, Hong Kong and Thailand.

Global Kinetics was now seeking to penetrate the US and European markets and was hopeful of getting

US Food and Drug Administration approval this year, Mr Maxwell said.

He said Global Kinetics also was looking to expand the device’s functions. “We think the way things are

progressing more and more medical data collection will occur from wrist-worn sensors or sensors worn

on the body, and they will communicate with each other. More and more data will be connected and there

will be platforms that evolve to interpret the data over time.”

 

 

Article Credit:  Chris Griffith - THE AUSTRALIAN

Picture Credit: David Geraghty - News Limited

Wristband Aid To Help Manage Parkinson’s

“Lift” Spoon Not Just for Convenience

Posted by & filed under News.

 

 

“Lift” Spoon Not Just for Convenience

Lift Labs, a San Francisco based business, developed the “Lift” spoon basically to enable people with movement disorders and tremors to eat comfortably without spilling their “soup” before getting it from the bowl to their mouth.  The device senses a tremor when it is first picked up and uses stabilizers to counter the tremor, keeping the contents of the spoon steady.  It has a rechargeable battery so it will always be ready to use.  Lift Labs is promising more attachments beside the spoon, such as a fork and a key holder will be available soon.

Now a young researcher from the University of Michigan, Dr. Kelvin L. Chou, has found that the “spoon” is not just convenient, but actually helps reduce tremors.   This clever fellow tested 15 PARKINSON’S DISEASE patients on three different tasks: holding something in the spoon; eating with the spoon and transferring objects from the spoon to a cup about a foot away.  (He actually used small foam blocks instead of actual food.)  Subjects were tested with the “spoon” turned off and then again with it turned on.  While both subjects and the investigator were supposedly blinded, because of the effect of the device, true blinding might not be possible.

With the exception of two subjects hose tremors were so severe that use of the device was not helpful, the rest saw a reduction of their tremors of between 71% and 76% as measured with an accelerometer.  Using the Fahn-Tolosa-Marin Tremor Rating Scale (TRS), all subjects showed a significant improvement on all three tasks when the device was turned on.  Improvement in this case meant going from “spilling to minimal spilling”.  Tremor was still present, but most of the subjects were impressed with the device and wanted to buy one when it becomes commercially available.

The device, called the Lift Ware Stabilizer, is now available and can be ordered from liftlabsdesign.com.  It costs $295.00, but comes with a 30-day money back guarantee.  Lift Labs says the cost works out to about 27 cents a meal for a year.

Handheld Device Reduced Tremors. Medscape. Mar. 11, 2014

 

Review by Marcia McCall

 

Picture Credit

http://patentsforhumanity.challengepost.com/submissions/9703-lift-system

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